Determinants of echocardiographic epicardial adipose tissue in a general middle-aged population – The Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study

Sci Rep. 2024 May 25;14(1):11982. doi: 10.1038/s41598-024-61727-7.


Epicardial adipose tissue (EAT) is the cardiac visceral fat depot proposed to play a role in the etiology of various cardiovascular disease outcomes. Little is known about EAT determinants in a general population. We examined cardiometabolic, dietary, lifestyle and socioeconomic determinants of echocardiograpghically measured EAT in early adulthood. Data on cardiometabolic, dietary, lifestyle and socioeconomic factors were collected from participants of the Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study (YFS; N = 1667; age 34-49 years). EAT thickness was measured from parasternal long axis echocardiograms. Multivariable regression analysis was used to study potential EAT determinants. Possible effect modification of sex was addressed. Mean EAT thickness was 4.07 mm (95% CI 4.00-4.17). Multivariable analysis [β indicating percentage of change in EAT(mm) per one unit increase in determinant variable] indicated female sex (β = 11.0, P < 0.0001), type 2 diabetes (β = 14.0, P = 0.02), waist circumference (cm) (β = 0.38, P < 0.0001), systolic blood pressure (mmHg) (β = 0.18, P = 0.02) and red meat intake (g/day) (β = 0.02, P = 0.05) as EAT determinants. Sex-specific analysis revealed age (year) (β = 0.59, P = 0.01), alcohol intake (drinks/day) (β = 4.69, P = 0.006), heavy drinking (yes/no) (β = 30.4, P < 0.0001) as EAT determinants in women and fruit intake (g/day) (β = -1.0, P = 0.04) in men. In the YFS cohort, waist circumference, systolic blood pressure and red meat intake were directly associated with EAT among all participants. In women, age, alcohol intake, heavy drinking and type 2 diabetes associated directly with EAT, while an inverse association was observed between fruit intake and EAT in men.

PMID:38796541 | DOI:10.1038/s41598-024-61727-7

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